Oligosaccharides and cannot be destroyed by the body's acid, also cannot be digestive enzymes.But it can be intestinal bacteria fermentation using, converted to short chain fatty acids and lactic acid.As the colon fermentation way and the absorption condition is different, these cannot be directly absorbed, can ferment carbohydrates, about can produce 0 ~ 2.5 calories per gram of heat.But the physiological activity of oligosaccharides, more be taken seriously.
Made up of hydrogen and oxygen three elements, and its formula is usually expressed in Cn (H2O) n.Due to some sugar molecules in the ratio of the number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms tend to be 2:1, the same as the water, in the past for such material is a compound of carbon and water, so called "carbs" (Carbohydrate).In fact this name is not exact, such as DNA, rhamnose sugar is not in conformity with the general formula, such as formaldehyde, acetic acid and is accord with the general formula but not sugar.Just "carbs" used for a long time, some of the older books is still adopted.
China will such compounds are collectively referred to as sugar, but only in English will have a sweet taste of monosaccharide sugars called sugar (sugar) and simple.Carbohydrate substances including sugars and polysaccharides, sugar chain combination of proteins, lipids and phospholipids "sugar complex".
Sugar is a kinds of organic compounds exist in nature, about three-quarters of the biological world, it is formed by green plants by photosynthesis, mainly composed of three elements C, H, O.Carbohydrate compounds by oxidation and release a lot of calories, accounts for some 80% of the human intake of calories, so sugar is one of the important energy meet life activities.
Carbohydrate are more hydroxy aldehydes or ketones compounds.To their hydrolysis of classification, according to all that can not be hydrolyzed into smaller molecules of sugar into simple sugars, minority (2-10) can be hydrolyzed to monosaccharide molecules for oligosaccharide oligosaccharides.Although the polysaccharide is a kind of high polymer containing more than 10 sugar units, but not too much less than 100 sugar units, and most have 100 to thousands of sugar units.
Oligosaccharide is by relatively few monosaccharide molecules (2-6), a form of material with dilute acid can be hydrolyzed into cooking all kinds of monosaccharide.Oligosaccharides in disaccharides distribution is the most common, meaning is bigger also.
Disaccharides is composed of two monosaccharide molecules condensation.Disaccharides can be thought of as a kind of glycoside, the ligands is another monosaccharide molecules.In nature, only three kinds of disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose) exist in the free state, the other more exist in combining with the status (e.g., cellobiose).Sugar is one of the most important disaccharides, maltose and cellobiose is the basic structure unit of the starch and cellulose.All three are easy to hydrolysis of monosaccharides.
Maltose (maltose) a large number of existed in fermented grains, especially in the malt.It is the components of starch.Of starch and glycogen in the role of amylase hydrolysis to produce maltose.Maltose is D - pyran glucose - alpha (1-4) - D - pyran glucoside, because a aldehyde group is free, all it is a reducing sugar, can restore fehling reagent.Branched chain starch hydrolyzate besides maltose also contains a small amount of isomaltose, it is alpha - D - pyran glucose - (1-6) - D - pyran glycosidase.
Spin phenomena of maltose change in aqueous solution, than to + 136 degrees, vulnerable to yeast fermentation.Right [alpha] D20 = 130.4 °.Maltose in the case of a lack of insulin can be absorbed by the liver and, not cause blood glucose for diabetics.
Milk sugar (lactose) exists in mammalian milk (milk contains 4-6%), higher plants and microbes in the pollen tube also contains a small amount of lactose.It is a beta - D - galactose - (1-4) - D - glycosidase.Lactose is not easy to dissolve, and not very sweet taste only 16 (sweetness), there is a reducing, and can into food, pure yeast cannot make its fermentation, acid can be hydrolyzed, dextral [alpha] D20 = 55.4 °.
Lactose hydrolysis need lactase, babies usually can digest lactose, the adult does not.Some adults lack of lactase, cannot use lactose, after edible lactose will accumulate in the small intestine, osmosis, make the fluid outflow, cause nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea.This is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, since adolescence.Its incidence is associated with regional, about 3% in Denmark, Thailand is as high as 92%.From ten thousand years ago when humans began to raise cattle appeared the enzyme lactase in the adult body.
Sugar (sucrose) is the main product of photosynthesis, and accumulation of plant sugar stored in the body, and the main form of transportation.In sugar beet, sugar cane, and various kinds of fruit contains more sugar.Daily consumption of sugar is mainly sugar.
Sugar is sweet, easy to crystallization, soluble in water, but more difficult to soluble in ethanol.If heated to 160 ºC, become the crystal glass samples, becoming brown when heated to 200 ºC of caramel.It is alpha - D - pyran glucose - (1 - > 2) - beta - D - furan glycoside.It is formed by hemiacetal hydroxyl of glucose and fructose between ketal hydroxyl shrink, because both reducing groups included in the glycosidic bond, all without reducing, is reducing noise disaccharide.Right, [alpha] D20 = 66.5 °.
Sucrose vulnerable to acid hydrolysis, and its speed is 1000 times larger than maltose and lactose.Hydrolysis to produce the same amount of D - glucose and D - fructose, the mixture is called invert sugar, sweetness for 160.Bees have invertase, therefore the honey contains a lot of invert sugar.Because than spiral of fructose is greater than the absolute value of glucose, so invert sugar solution is left-handed.In plants with a conversion enzyme catalyzed the reaction.Oral bacteria using sucrose synthesis right-lateral glucohexaose indican dental plaque is the main component.
Is the basic composition unit of cellulose.Can be obtained by the hydrolysis of cellulose.By two beta d-glucose by C1 - C4 is linked together, the latter is the difference between it and maltose as alpha glucoside.
Alpha - D - pyran glucose - (1, 1) - alpha - D - pyran glycosidase.In the content in dry yeast is more resistant, can be used as moisture.
Widely exists in the nature of the three only cottonseed sugar sugar, mainly exist in the cotton seed, sugar beet, soya and dry secretion of eucalyptus (honeydew honey).It is alpha - D - pyran galactose - (1-6) - alpha - D - pyran glucose - (1-2) - beta - D - furan glycoside.
Cottonseed sugar solution than spin is + 105.2 °, can't restore fehling reagent.Under the effect of sucrose enzyme decomposition into fructose and melibiose;Under the influence of alpha - galactose glucoside enzyme decomposition into galactose and sucrose.
Carbohydrate compounds is one of the four basic material composition of living organisms,
Biologists have long thought that carbohydrate compounds of biological functions only as energy materials such as plants and animals stored glycogen stored in the body of the starch, and as a structural material such as cellulose, chitin, etc.For a long time due to think the role of sugar in the biological organic body in protein and nucleic acid, its function for a long time did not get the attention they deserve.
In recent years, molecular biology, cell biology and biochemistry development make people realize that in addition to energy storage and other carbohydrates many biological functions, at the same time, the experimental results of a lot of substance is important information reveals the sugar molecules, involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including participation in organisms fertilization, development, differentiation, immune and nervous system identification and control;In microbiology and take important role in the interaction of animals and plants;In the process of aging, cancer, also involves the participation of sweets.
Oligose/oligosaccharide - Obtain way
Oligosaccharides can be extracted from natural food, also can use biochemical technology and enzyme reaction, using starch and disaccharides (such as sucrose, etc.) synthesis.
Oligosaccharides in nutrition, health care, diet, widely used in food, health food, beverage, medicine, feed additives, and other fields.It is a new kind of functional sugar source, instead of sucrose is oriented toward the 21st century the future type a new generation of function food. Is a wide scope of application and the application prospect of new products, popular in the world in recent years.The United States, Japan, Europe and other places have a large-scale production, the development and application of oligosaccharides in the mid - 90 - s, developing rapidly in recent years.
Oligosaccharides mainly has two kinds, one kind is low poly maltose, easy digest, low sweetness, low permeability characteristics and to increase the time power, enhance the body resistance, fatigue resistance, and other functions, the human body after heavy (or large) energy consumption and long time of dehydrated easily after strenuous exercise, energy conservation, consumption, reduce blood sugar, high body temperature, muscle, nerve conduction affected brain dysfunction and a series of physiological changes and symptoms, and after eating low poly maltose, not only can keep the blood sugar level, reduce the production of blood lactic acid, and insulin balance, human trials show that after using the oligosaccharides endurance and work capacity can be increased by more than 30%, the effect is very apparent.
Another kind is called bifidogenic factors malt oligosaccharide.This type of sugar into the large intestine as bifidobacterium proliferation factor, can effectively promote the beneficial bacteria in the human body to the growth of bifidobacteria, inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms, long-term consumption can slow aging, aperient, antibacterial, prevent cancer, anticancer, easing the burden on the liver, improve nutrition absorption rate, especially for the absorption of calcium, iron, zinc ions, improvement of lactose in milk products peptic and lipid metabolism, the higher the content of oligosaccharides, the greater the nutrition health care function to human body.
Oligose/oligosaccharide - Biological functions and applications:
Is an important information material organisms
Conjugated content through recognition of oligosaccharide chain determines the cell recognition, agglomeration and receptor function.Blood cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, for example, determines the blood type, since these sugar sugars of conjugated polymer type and structure of the sugar produced a different blood type.Oligosaccharides, according to new research to them, not only at work, sugars itself has many important physiological functions, some oligosaccharides can activate plant self defense system, some oligosaccharides can induce rhizobia nitrogen fixation, some oligosaccharides with combined with a glycoprotein on the invading microbes and prevent these microbes on human normal cells, some oligosaccharides have antibacterial, antiviral and improve the activity of immune function, while some oligosaccharides has the function of heparin sugars are hopefully become family of blood type determines the prevention and treatment of cancer drugs.
1. Oligose/oligosaccharide has nutrition health care function:
Because the body does not have decomposition, digestive oligosaccharide enzyme system, after eating, it is little or no heat, can effectively the prevention and treatment of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.And few chitosan is a kind of important bifidobacterium growth promoting factor (bifidus factor, BF), it can effectively promote the growth of bifidobacterium in the intestines.BF by promoting the growth of bifidobacterium breeding performance its main physiological functions, such as to improve human immunity;Reduce intestinal pH value;Inhibit the growth of intestinal harmful bacteria;B vitamins;Decomposition of carcinogens, promote intestinal peristalsis;Promote the absorption of protein, etc.
Besides natural pure oligosaccharides and prevent tooth decay, reducing blood fat and promote mineral absorption and other important function.Oligonucleotides glycan enable the elderly to calcium absorption ability increased by more than five times, is an effective nutritional supplements to prevent osteoporosis in the elderly.
2. Oligose/oligosaccharide has anticoagulant activity:
The study found that polyanion oligosaccharides have good anticoagulant activity, a large number of small side effects of anticoagulant, including low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), chondroitin sulfate B, phthalein glycine, two synthesis maltose lactose phthalein glycine and antithrombin III (ATIII) combined with heparin five sugar, etc.Kind of heparin oligosaccharide has the same anticoagulant function of heparin, but the heparin bleeding and thrombocytopenia and other side effects are greatly reduced, and it has the possibility of synthesis, can be a single compound.
3. Oligose/oligosaccharide have very strong antiviral activity:
Reported in recent years, there are plenty of oligosaccharides to HIV have very good inhibitory effect.As early as 1964 heparin was found have inhibitory effect on pure scar rash virus HSV.So often in the course of study in class heparin material as a starting point, for a variety of natural and artificial modification of the antiviral activity of polysaccharides sulfate were discussed.The study found that in the process of antiviral is a period of a particular structure of oligosaccharides in plays a key role.In the actual process of research and development of individual oligosaccharide antiviral activity is low, and in the case of presence of hydrophobic group - hydroxy has very good antiviral effect.
4. Oligose/oligosaccharide have antitumor activity:
Saliva acidification Louis oligosaccharides cluster on the surface of the tumor cells can pass with platelets, white blood cells and endothelial cells expressing choose haemagglutinin adhesion receptor combination of accelerated tumor metastasis.S the interference LeX assembly can provide a new method of chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer metastasis.A kind of micro molarity all b phthalein disaccharide role in fostering the human body gland cancer cells can reduce the expression of S LeX.The antitumor function of the oligosaccharides and anti-infection ability is largely by improving the body immunity, oligosaccharide itself has no cytotoxicity, which makes it as antitumor and anti-infection drugs potential side effects is reduced greatly.
5. Oligose/oligosaccharide have anti-inflammatory activity:
Study showed that white blood cells on the surface of S LeX four chitosan (a blood group antigen, can choose by E protein endothelial cells - white blood cells to identify growth factors), when the tissue infection or damaged, leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, rolling along blood vessel walls and through the wall into the damaged tissue, destroy invading pathogens.
The health benefits of oligosaccharides:
(1) Improve the micro ecological environment in the human body, is advantageous to the proliferation of bifidobacterium and other beneficial bacteria, the metabolism of organic acid to lower intestinal pH value, inhibit the growth of intestinal bacteria salmonella and corruption, adjust gastrointestinal function, inhibiting intestinal corruption substances, change shit character, the prevention and treatment of constipation, and increase vitamin synthesis, improve the body's immune function.
(2) The oligosaccharide similar water soluble fiber, can improve blood lipid metabolism, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood;
(3) oligosaccharides by non insulin dependent, won't make blood glucose, suitable for high blood sugar and diabetes people crowd
(4) Due to the difficult by saliva enzymes and small intestine digestive enzyme hydrolysis, low calorific value, rarely to fat;
(5) Don't be caries bacteria form matrix, no condensation bacteria effect, can prevent dental caries.
Therefore, oligosaccharides, as a kind of food ingredients are widely used in dairy products, lactic acid bacteria beverage, bifidobacterium yogurt, cereal and health food, especially in food used in infants and the elderly.In the health food series, also has a separate with oligosaccharides as raw material, made of oral liquid, directly used to adjust the intestinal flora, runchang purge, regulating blood lipid, regulating immunity, etc.
Oligosaccharides are difficult to digestion and absorption by human body or not, therefore, it provides the energy value of low or no, can play a role in the low energy food, maximize meet the requirements of those sweet tooth and worry about fat, also available for people with diabetes, obesity patients.
Activation in the gut bifidobacteria and promote it to grow and multiply bifidobacterium is human intestinal bacteria and the bacteria number will gradually reduce along with the increase of age.Bifidobacterium in the intestines of what has become one of the indices for human body healthy or not.With the rapid development of medical science, broad spectrum and powerful antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of various diseases, make human body normal intestinal flora balance all varying degrees of damage.Therefore, purposefully and increase the quantity of gut bacteria is very necessary.Intake of bifidobacteria products is simple and reliable, but this kind of product from production to sales are subject to many limitations, and through the intake of functional oligosaccharides to promote intestinal bifidobacterium proliferation is more practical nature.
Inhibition of intestinal corruption products generate human intestinal bacteria (such as clostridium gas capsule and e. coli) convert amino acids generated ammonia, indole products such as corruption.Daily 10 grams of soy oligosaccharides powder can obviously reduce corruption, and can also inhibit the intestinal generate carcinogenic substances related beta grape glucoside acid enzyme and azo reductase.
Different malt oligosaccharide:
Animal and human studies found that different malt oligosaccharide has certain regulation, improve the function of the intestinal flora.This Zhai function mainly includes: the promotion of bifidobacterium proliferation, reduce the toxic and harmful bacteria enzyme fermented product produce, disease-causing bacteria and diarrhea, prevent constipation, lower serum cholesterol, etc.So eating food containing different malt oligosaccharide to improve human intestinal flora, control dysbacteriosis, adjust and restore normal intestinal function, treatment and prevention of constipation, diarrhea, improve hyperlipidemia and diabetes, dyslipidemia, has a good effect.
Normal diet can provide 5 grams per day - 10 grams of peptic oligosaccharides.Sugars effective dose of healthy adults for 15 to 20 grams a day, less than 15 g As a general rule, be considered inadequate dose.Oligosaccharide content was 80% ~ 90% of above commonly belongs to high purity.
Related note information:
In the process of metabolism of human body difficult to digest toxin, when e. toxins accumulated too much, can cause bloating, constipation and diarrhea.After intake of functional oligosaccharides, proliferation of intestinal bifidobacterium fermentable toxin, break it down into a large number of short chain fatty acids, they can stimulate the intestinal peristalsis, increase fecal moisture and keep certain permeability, and two-way regulating intestinal environment and prevent the occurrence of constipation and diarrhea.
Oligosaccharides - common oligosaccharides and their role.
The name/ingredient and combined type/main use is as follows:
Malt oligosaccharide glucose (alpha - 1, 4 glycosidic bond) nourishing nutritional, antimicrobial properties
Isomaltooligosaccharide glucose (alpha - 1, 6 glycosidic bond) prevent dental caries, promote bifidobacterium proliferation
Cricoid dextrin glucose (annular alpha - 1, 4 glycosidic bond) low calorific value, prevent the accumulation of cholesterol
Gentian disaccharide of glucose (beta) - 1, 6 methods of the glycosidic bond, bitter can form packing body
Coupling of sugar (Coup ling sugar) glucose (alpha - 1, 4 glycosidic bond), sucrose caries prevention
Fructose oligosaccharides fructose (beta - 1, 2 with glycosidic bond), sucrose on bifidobacterium proliferation
Pan sugar glucose (alpha - 1, 6 glycosidic bond), fructose caries prevention
Trehalose glucose (alpha - 1, 1 glycosidic bond), fructose prevent tooth decay, high quality sweetness
Sugar glucose oligosaccharides (alpha) - 1, 6 methods of the glycosidic bond, sucrose and other dental caries prevention, promote bifidobacterium proliferation
Milk oligosaccharides galactose (beta - 1, 4) key combination), glucose skeleton prevent dental caries, promote bifidobacterium proliferation
Chitin oligosaccharide acetylglucosamine (beta - 1, 4) key combination), sucrose anti tumor
Soybean oligosaccharide shut lactose (alpha) - 1, 6 methods of the glycosidic bond, sucrose on bifidobacterium proliferation
Galactosyl oligosaccharides galactose (beta) - 1, 6 methods of the glycosidic bond, sucrose on bifidobacterium proliferation
Fructose oligosaccharides galactose (alpha - 1, 2 ': beta - 1', 2 with glycosidic bond) quality sweetness
Wooden oligosaccharide xylose (beta - 1, 4 glycosidic bond) water activity regulation
The prospect of research oligosaccharide :
Generally consists of three to ten monosaccharide molecules via glycosidic bond connection, due to the large molecular weight polysaccharides, viscosity, diffusion difficult and complicated structure, make the absorption of polysaccharides have been hampered, application scope is limited.Sugars due to its relatively small molecular weight, the structure is simple, make its solubility, stability and safety, at the same time many polysaccharide chain after different types of fracture, its original activity was improved, and oligosaccharides but also has the characteristics of low toxicity, it is can't be matched by many polysaccharides and natural active substances, so the study of oligosaccharides to cause the attention of people increasingly.
Oligosaccharide biological function determines it has a broad application prospect in the field of medicine.In recent years in the research of biological activity of oligosaccharides was very much, in immune regulating function, anti-tumor, anti-virus, anti-oxidation, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, fall blood sugar, blood lipid and other effects.Oligosaccharides as a new class of physiological active substances in the nutrition and health care, disease diagnosis and prevention and control of the application of great potential.